What is Disinfection and What is the Purpose of Disinfection?
Disinfection is the process of eliminating potentially harmful microorganisms in the environment to a degree that cannot reach the level that requires sterilization. In other words, the intended event here is the elimination of pathogenic microorganisms. The disinfection process is a process that is applied to inanimate environments on the objects and tools in the environment. The chemicals used in disinfection are also called disinfectants.
What is Disinfection? How is it done?
Microorganisms find a place to live in soil, air, the human body and all around us. Carpets, fabrics, armchairs and floors in our homes are nests of bacteria, fungi and viruses. In addition, many bacteria are quite resistant to the materials used while cleaning life. Disinfection is one of the things you can do to completely rid your home or workplace of microorganisms. Especially during medical and surgical interventions, in food production facilities, dental procedures etc. an environment that is completely free of germs and bacteria is required.
Ambient air and materials must comply with certain rules in places such as operating rooms, dialysis, intensive care, transplantation and newborn baby units. Thanks to disinfection, pathogenic microorganisms in the inanimate environment are killed. At the same time, the reproduction of such microorganisms is prevented by applying disinfection.
What is Disinfection?
The process of removing and eliminating microbes with disease-causing properties is called disinfection. Disinfection defines a wide range. In the disinfection process, disinfectants formed by chemicals are generally used. There are two different disinfection methods. One is made using high temperature and to destroy microorganisms; the other is high-level disinfection and is done by applying it over a long period of time.
What is Sterilization?
The process of purification of all microorganisms on or in a substance is called sterilization. After the sterilization process is applied, all microorganisms in the environment are killed. Degrees of sterilization is not found; It is a one-time operation. Once done, all non-spore bacteria, viruses, and microorganisms such as fungi are destroyed. The purpose of sterilization is the elimination of all organisms.
What kind of substances are used during disinfection?
Substances that can kill all microorganisms.
- Fast-acting substances.
- Non-toxic substances.
- Neutral pH or water-soluble substances.
- Colourless and odourless substances Stable substances.
- Substances that do not harm things.
- Substances that do not harm the environment.
- Inexpensive and easy-to-use ingredients.
Methodology Of Disinfection
Disinfection with Heat
Heat disinfection is the most widely used method in homes. By boiling the water for 15-20 minutes, pathogenic substances are killed. However, in large-scale applications, it is a very tiring method that you cannot handle.
How to Be Effective in Disinfection with Heat?
- degree of temperature,
- ambient pressure,
- contact time,
- heat resistance of the microorganism.
The method, which was first used by Baker in France in 1910, is an application that is not affected by other chemicals. Although the contact time is short, it is locally effective. UV radiation, which is ineffective in the biofilm in the system, does not change the physical or chemical properties of the water. This process requires a very high amount of energy and expensive equipment.
Disinfection with Chemical Disinfectants
Halogens such as bromine, iodine, chlorine and hydrogen peroxide are used in disinfection processes.
Bromine: Bromine in halogen and liquid form is dark red-brown. This chemical, which causes burns in contact with the skin, is 3.2 times heavier than water. Bromine, which has a high germicidal effect, is also used in the disinfection of swimming pools.
Chlorine: Chlorine is the most commonly used halogen while disinfecting. Its widespread use has even led to the use of disinfection as “Chlorinating”. It is commercially available as chlorine, liquefied gas, calcium hypochlorites and sodium, which was first used in the UK for the disinfection of water.
Ozone: Ozone is an unstable gas with a pungent, light blue colour. For this reason, ozone is produced when it is used. The drinking water of more than 70 cities in France is disinfected with ozone. In addition, ozone is used not only to disinfect but also to remove the colour and odour of water.