The question of What is Ozone? has a simple yet complicated answer. Ozone is a chemical compound consisting of three oxygen atoms (O3). It is very high energy carrying a form of two-atom normal atmospheric oxygen (O2). Thus, the structures of these two types of molecules differ from each other as follows:
O3 is a colourless, characteristic odour gas at room temperature. (felt after stormy weather, in high places or at the seaside). Its name comes from ozein, which means “smelly” in Greek. It was discovered in 1840 by the German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein (1799-1868). Near the ground levels, one particle per 10 million air particles is present in the form of smoke at concentrations of O3 (= 0.1 ppm = 200 µg / m³). At 2000 meters altitude, it decreases much more and drops to 0.03 – 0.04 ppm levels.
Thanks to its very strong oxidizing and very effective disinfection feature, it is used as a germicidal in treatment plants that provide drinking water worldwide.
Active oxygen (Ozone O3) is the most effective antimicrobial and deodorizing agent known. Ozone, formed by the sun’s ultraviolet rays and electric arcs that emerge at the moment of lightning, is available as a protective shield around the world and protects living things against the radiation effect of the sun.
Ozone formed by lightning clears the air. It is the ozone that we draw in, especially on the elevations and the seaside, as the smell of fresh air, creates this feeling in the air and occurred during lightning.
Ozone (O3) is a colourless, pungent-smelling gas formed by adding an (O) oxygen atom to the oxygen (O2) molecule. O2 + O1 = O3. It is an active form of oxygen-carrying high energy. It is one of the most important gases in the atmosphere and helps maintain the biological balance in our world. It prevents harmful rays. As it is known wrong, it is not a “polluting gas in our air. It makes life possible in the world.
Today, ozone production technologies have been developed to take advantage of the many benefits of ozone.
Health and recovery cannot occur without oxygen. One can live 1-2 months without food, 1-2 weeks without water, but without oxygen, but only 5 minutes. Oxygen is our main requirement. Many diseases can be prevented or completely cured by providing sufficient oxygen to the tissues and organs in need.
In today’s world, just breathing no longer supplies our body with enough oxygen. Our body is constantly being polluted by toxins in our air, water, and food. The amount of oxygen in our cities is well below 21% and continues to fall. When smoking, stress, sedentary life, and unhealthy nutrition are added, the accumulation of toxins and oxygen deficiency increases in our body. This prepares the ground for chronic fatigue, premature ageing, diseases, and cancer. To ensure adequate oxygenation, we may have to do more than a breath.
|Molecular Weight||48 g/mole|
|Density Relative to Air||1.66|
|Specific Weight at 0 degree C & 760 mm Hg||2.143 kg/m3|
|Heat of Formation||34.5 kcal/mole|
|Boiling Point||-112 degrees C (dark blue liquid)|
|Melting Point||-193 degrees C (dark red or blue solid)|
At standard temperature and pressure, ozone is a blue gas. Ozone forms a dark blue liquid below -112 °C and a dark blue solid below -193 °C. Ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is unstable, decaying to ordinary oxygen through the reaction: 2O3 → 3O2.
Typical Ozone Lifetime as a Function of Temperature
|Gaseous||Dissolved in Water (pH 7)|
|Half Life Time||Temperature||Half Life Time||Temperature|
|3 months||-50 C||30 minutes||15 C|
|18 days||-35 C||20 minutes||20 C|
|8 days||-25 C||15 minutes||25 C|
|3 days||20 C||12 minutes||30 C|
|1.5 hours||120 C||8 minutes||35 C|
|1.5 seconds||250 C|
Values based on thermal decomposition only, does not consider chemical reactions, wall and catalytic effects.
Approximate Solubility of Ozone in Water
As a Function of Temperature and Ozone Gas Concentration
|Temperature (Degrees C)||mg/l 100% Ozone in Gas||mg/l 2.5 wt % Ozone in Gas||mg/l 5.0 wt. % Ozone in Gas||mg/l 10 wt. % Ozone in Gas|
Ozone generators, as the name suggests, are devices that produce ozone. A typical ozone generator or ozone machine is a device that breaks down oxygen molecules to produce ozone gas and uses the following methods while doing this:
Silent corona discharge: Like lightning in nature, all electrical discharges form ozone molecules by splitting oxygen molecules consisting of two atoms and bringing these atoms together. This technique constitutes the general working principle of ozone generators used today.
Ultraviolet radiation: This process is similar to the ozone formation in the upper atmosphere, where the sun’s ultraviolet radiation causes O2 to split into individual oxygen atoms. Using this method for ozone generators provides a lower efficiency than the corona method.