Today, heat pumps are considered as one of the air conditioning technology products of the future. While the negative effects of global climate changes continue to affect the world, heat pump technology stands out as the most effective air conditioning solution. The main reason for this is that while fossil fuel heating products generate heat as a result of a chemical reaction, heat pumps obtain heat by transferring the existing heat on Earth.
A heat pump is an electrically powered system based on the principle of transporting heat energy from one environment to another. When the necessary conditions are met, high amounts of energy can be used at low costs.
For most people, a heat pump is a new term. However, devices such as refrigerators, air conditioners and deep freezers, which are the products of the same logic as the heat pump operating principle, are used in our homes. Since the operation logic of these devices is based on the principle of transporting heat, these devices can be grouped under the heading of a heat pump. It is an inevitable result that the heat pump will become widespread in our country in the near future.
Heat pumps combine heating, cooling and hot water use in a single device, providing high energy savings compared to other heat sources. Heat pumps can provide the energy they transfer not only from the air but also from different environments such as soil and water. In addition, heat pumps carry the potential heat energy of air, soil and water to our homes, while providing the warmth comfort of our home, they do not release any toxic gases to the nature.
Heat pumps are devices that transfer energy from one source to another. The source of energy is air, water or soil.
The heat pump cools the source from which it receives energy when operating in heating mode, and heats when cooling. The process is taking energy with the phase change of the gas and carrying this energy. Some energy is consumed during this transport and phase change.
Heat pumps consume some electrical energy during the transfer of energy from the source to the heated or cooled environment. If the consumed electricity is 1 kW, the total heat energy taken is 4.5 kW, the COP value of this device is 4.5.
All heat pumps work on the same principle. The heat generated is a result of the cooling process. Think about the refrigerator in your home. The fluid, which takes the heat of the food in the refrigerator and the air in the refrigerator, gives heat to the room while cooling the interior of the refrigerator. This is why the pipes behind the refrigerator are always hot. The compressor in the refrigerator increases the energy it receives from inside the refrigerator 3-4 times and transmits it to the back as heat. This is the truth about the operation of the refrigerator. Although the main purpose is cooling, heat is released as a result of the cooling process. So if you are always cooling one environment, you are heating another environment.
As it is known, energy does not exist out of anything, it simply changes form or moves from one place to another. The heat pump also gets its name from its ability to “pump” or “transfer” heat energy from one environment to another. If the goal is to heat rather than cool, your refrigerator is a heat pump. (Air-air heat pump.) In this example, the source is the air inside the refrigerator; the medium through which the heat is transmitted: the air at the back of the refrigerator.
As a result, you get ¾ of the heat energy you need in heat pump systems from solar energy stored in nature, that is, from natural thermal energy (soil, water, air), and ¼ from electrical energy.
Soil, water and air are free, renewable and inexhaustible sources of energy.
In addition, heat pumps can be used mostly for heating in the winter, as well as for cooling the same environment in the summer.
Water-water and air-water heat pumps can provide heating and cooling at the same time. Other heat pumps require a low additional cost for cooling.
Air, soil (horizontal or vertical) and water are used as the main source in the heat pump. Source selection is made according to the region and purpose. The important thing is that the source is as stable as possible. The most stable resource is soil. But the initial investment value is high. Air temperatures are constantly changing. It varies a lot during the day, at night and even during the day. However, with the development of compressor technology and gases in recent years, the COP values of ground source heat pumps and air source heat pumps in temperate regions have come very close to each other.
Freon gases, which we call refrigerants, are used in heat pump closed circuits. The refrigerant passing through the evaporator evaporates by absorbing the necessary heat from the surrounding environment, and this evaporated refrigerant is pressed into the condenser via the compressor. In the condenser, the refrigerant in the form of the superheated vapour condenses into a saturated liquid by giving heat to the surrounding environment. The heat pump cycle is completed by reducing the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant from the condenser through the throttling valve to the pressure and temperature of the evaporator.